Paolo Racagni, Paola Perpignani


Ravenna conserva un patrimonio artistico di straordinario valore che si esprime in particolar modo nei mosaici dei suoi mausolei, chiese e battisteri, dove operano mosaicisti con antiche procedure a tutt’oggi ancora invariate, che vengono utilizzate per i necessari interventi di conservazione e restauro in atto.

Hammer and Hardy: instruments of an ancient art - The term
mosaic indicates ancient and modern works of art made of polygonal stone, pottery and vitreous tesserae, placed close together in a cement mortar onto a rigid support: fl oor, wall or other. The same techniques have been used in the last 3000 years: work was subdivided according to specifi c manual, craftsmanship and artistic competence, from the calcis coctor (who made the mortar), to the pavimentarius (prepared fl oors underlayer). Cutting of the tesserae was carried by the lapidarius, using a simple hammer and hardy (arched and sharpened on both ends).
There are two different types of hammer and hardy. One made of steel, coupled to a steel hardy, used for cutting marbles, stone and river pebbles tesserae. The other type is made of steel with a widia hardy and is used for enamels and vitreous pastes. The weight of the hammer varies between 300 to 900 grams, according to the nature of material.
Tesserae vary in size: from big to very small, from 2 x 2 x 2 cm to 0,2 x 0,2 x 3 cm (as in the “opus vermicolatum” of the “Battle of Isso”, from Pompei).

Parole chiave

mosaico, restauro

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